, This article is about Modern Northern England English. Using this definition, the isogloss between North and South runs from the River Severn to the Wash – this definition covers not just the entire North of England (which Wells divides into "Far North" and "Middle North") but also most of the Midlands, including the distinctive Brummie (Birmingham) and Black Country dialects. , In addition to previous contact with Vikings, during the 9th and 10th centuries most of northern and eastern England was part of either the Danelaw, or the Danish-controlled Kingdom of Northumbria (with the exception of much of present-day Cumbria, which was part of the Kingdom of Strathclyde). As people moved from the countryside into the cities to take up jobs in industry following the Industrial Revolution, the numbers of UWYE speakers grew significantly. The Viking invasions, that occurred throughout northern and eastern England from the 9th century onwards, had a huge impact on the language spoken in that part of the country. The prevalence of RP has declined since then, and it is currently said to be the native accent for only about 3% of the UK population. A guide to northern English accents There is a large variety of accents across the north of England and they range from mild to strong. For English of northern United States, see, also, non-rhotic Lancashire: [æː]; rhotic Lancashire: [æːɹ], Geordie and Northumberland, when not final or before a, Lancashire, Cumbria, and Yorkshire, when before /t/: [eɪ~ɛɪ], rhotic Lancashire and Northumberland: [əɹ~ɜɹ]; also, Geordie: [ɛ~ɐ], Northumberland, less rounded: [ʌ̈]; in Scouse, Manchester, South Yorkshire and (to an extent) Teesside the word, [ŋ] predominates in the northern half of historical Lancashire, [ŋg] predominates only in South Yorkshire's Sheffield, Hughes, Arthur, Peter Trudgill, and Dominic James Landon Watt. While it is still recognisably northern, speakers of GNE can be very hard to locate geographically more precisely than this. There was also some influence on speech in Manchester, but relatively little on Yorkshire beyond Middlesbrough. The Yan Tan Tethera system was traditionally used in counting stitches in knitting, as well as in children's nursery rhymes, counting-out games, and was anecdotally connected to shepherding.  Both the Scots language and the Northumbrian dialect of English descend from the Old English of Northumbria (diverging in the Middle English period) and are still very similar to each other. 2. While it is still recognisably northern… Many words and place-names in these areas have Scandinavian origin, such as beck meaning ‘stream’ or bairn meaning ‘child’, and the place-names Whitby and Grimsby. In Yorkshire and the North East, hisself and theirselves are preferred to himself and themselves. This pronunciation is found in the words that were affected by the trap–bath. Today, there is a continuum of accents that could all be labelled as EE, including speakers on the more RP-end (e.g., Russell Brand) and on the more Cockney-end (e.g., David Beckham). Depending on the region, reflexive pronouns can be pronounced (and often written) as if they ended -sen, -sel or -self (even in plural pronouns) or ignoring the suffix entirely. New England English collectively refers to the various distinct dialects and varieties of American English originating in the New England area. Since then it has spread, and is now heard in much of the southeast. Contemporary RP is used by younger upper-middle-class speakers, and shares certain similarities with Estuary English.  Very few terms from Brythonic languages have survived, with the exception of place name elements (especially in Cumbrian toponymy) and the Yan Tan Tethera counting system, which largely fell out of use in the nineteenth century. In a very early study of English dialects, Alexander J Ellis defined the border between the north and the midlands as that where the word house is pronounced with u: to the north (as also in Scots). UWYE has its origins in traditional forms of Yorkshire English, but has developed features which distinguish it from the speech patterns of people from other parts of the Yorkshire region. Listen to an example of Estuary English (EE). This is a distinctive feature of the MLE accent. , The forms yan and yen used to mean one as in someyan ("someone") that yan ("that one"), in some northern English dialects, represents a regular development in Northern English in which the Old English long vowel /ɑː/ <ā> was broken into /ie/, /ia/ and so on. Some linguists have suggested that EE will take over as the southern standard accent in England. There is no single Northern or Southern accent… they can vary wothin a few miles. Either form may dominate depending on the region and individual speech patterns (so some Northern speakers may say "I was" and "You was" while others prefer "I were" and "You were") and in many dialects especially in the far North, weren't is treated as the negation of was. While MLE is stereotypically associated with ethnic minority individuals, it is spoken by people from a variety of ethnic backgrounds. Listen to this short audio clip to hear an example of the GNE accent. Davison, Robert, b.1884 (male, labourer). , Many northern dialects reflect the influence of the Old Norse language strongly, compared with other varieties of English spoken in England. This is a feature that RP shares with all accents in the southeast of England. In the word. Within as little as 5 miles there can be an identifiable change in accent. There are several speech features that unite most of the accents of Northern England and distinguish them from Southern England and Scottish accents: Estuary English is the name given to an accent of English spoken in the Home Counties region in the southeast of England (named after the Thames estuary). This is because, unlike southern varieties, northern English accents did not participate in the so-called ‘FOOT-STRUT split’, which made pairs of words like. While it’s not completely clear what the origins of GNE are, it seems to be related to a general levelling of urban and rural accents across the north towards a less localisable form. However, in UWYE we also get dark ‘l’ at the beginnings of words, which you can hear in the word lower. The east-coast town of Middlesbrough also has a significant Irish influence on its dialect, as it grew during the period of mass migration. EE is generally described as being somewhere between upper-class RP and Cockney, the traditional working-class accent in London. We’re working hard to be accurate – but these are unusual times, so please always check before heading out. There are traditional dialects associated with many of the historic counties, including the Cumbrian dialect, Lancashire dialect, Northumbrian dialect and Yorkshire dialect, but new, distinctive dialects have arisen in cities following urbanisation in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries: The Manchester urban area has the Manchester dialect, Liverpool and its surrounds have Scouse, Newcastle-upon-Tyne has Geordie and Yorkshire has Tyke. You can also hear that the speaker glottals many of his ‘t’ sounds, so that the word started sounds something like “star’ed”. Historically, the strongest influence on the varieties of the English language spoken in Northern England was the Northumbrian dialect of Old English, but contact with Old Norse during the Viking Age and with Irish English following the Great Famine have produced new and distinctive styles of speech. MLE is also associated with elements of local London urban culture, especially including the Grime music scene. Well, there is! The accent is generally associated with young, working-class people from ethnic minority backgrounds. Other linguists, such as John C. Wells, describe these as the dialects of the "Far North" and treat them as a subset of all Northern English dialects. distinct from the ‘TRAP’ set in southern England. Linguists believe that MLE developed over the past 30 years as a result of close contact between speakers from different ethnic and linguistic backgrounds in multiethnic parts of London. Related accents also found in rural Yorkshire, although there are some unique dialect features there that I won’t get into now.Features: 1.  Under Wells' scheme, this definition includes Far North and Middle North dialects, but excludes the Midlands dialects. The speaker in the clip also demonstrates his lack of a TRAP-BATH distinction in his pronunciation of craft, which has the same vowel that he would use in crash. The dialects of this region are descended from the Northumbrian dialect of Old English rather than Mercian or other Anglo-Saxon dialects. Regional dialects within Northern England also had many unique terms, and canny ("clever") and nobbut ("nothing but") were both common in the corpus, despite being limited to the North East and to the North West and Yorkshire respectively. Students from northern England are being ridiculed over their accents and backgrounds at one of the country’s leading universities, and even forced out, … Speaker's note: Aged 32 In the more rural dialects and those of the far North, this is typically ye, while in cities and areas of the North West with historical Irish communities, this is more likely to be yous. London: Hodder Education, 2012. p. 116. Of course, there was one obvious example of Northern accent widely heard outside England in the ’60s. he has no FOOT-STRUT split). GNE actually sounds fairly similar to southern standard accents, but includes some features which are found in other northern accents of English. There, you can hear that in RP the ‘r’ sound in words like worked, part-time or order is not pronounced, so the words sound more like “wuhked”, “paht-time” and “awdah”. These are the accents and dialect spoken north of the midlands, in cities like Manchester, Leeds, and Liverpool. Like the GNE speaker, he also uses the same vowel in the words one and submit as he would use in good or book (i.e. , Scottish English is always considered distinct from Northern England English, although the two have interacted and influenced each other. Conversely, Wells uses a very broad definition of the linguistic North, comprising all dialects that have not undergone the TRAP–BATH and FOOT–STRUT splits.  This was most likely borrowed from a relatively modern form of the Welsh language rather than being a remnant of the Brythonic of what is now Northern England. This explains the shift to yan and ane from the Old English ān, which is itself derived from the Proto-Germanic *ainaz. As I’ve previously discussed, English accents exhibit various types of /r/ sounds.  Although well-suited to historical analysis, this line does not reflect contemporary language; this line divides Lancashire and Yorkshire in half and few would today consider Manchester or Leeds, both located south of the line, as part of the Midlands. Today it is still generally associated with working-class speakers. , A study of a corpus of Late Modern English texts from or set in Northern England found lad ("boy" or "young man") and lass ("girl" or "young woman") were the most widespread "pan-Northern" dialect terms. The UK has some of the highest levels of accent diversity in the English-speaking world. As you can hear in the clip, the speaker pronounces the vowel in the words, . The latter especially is a distinctively Northern trait. English is undoubtedly the world’s universal language, but when it comes to the vernacular used in the North of England, it’s a whole different dictionary you’ll need to use. There is evidence that it is occurring all over the UK. We also hear l-vocalisation in the word while (like we heard in EE) and t-glottaling in the word noticed. You can hear a number of MLE features in the audio clip. Another feature is the GNE vowel in the word, , which is pronounced with the same vowel as in, . There, you can hear that in RP the ‘r’ sound in words like. The grammatical patterns of Northern England English are similar to those of British English in general. , During the mid and late 19th century, there was large-scale migration from Ireland, which affected the speech of parts of Northern England. Whenever you use a word ending in -ing, drop the "g" and finish the word with "in." In the audio clip, you can hear some characteristic EE features. The result is an accent that sits somewhere in the middle, and that sounds noticeably southeastern but without the more stigmatised class connotations. This feature is called GOAT monophthonging, and it is one of the features that sometimes makes listeners say that Yorkshire vowels sound ‘flat’ (though it’s not just a northern habit; a similar thing can be heard in our MLE audio clip). We have interviewed many people like Chris but have not included them in Real English. The North does not have a clear distinction between the, Some northern English speakers have noticeable rises in their, This page was last edited on 24 December 2020, at 02:28. Some of these are now shared with Scottish English and the Scots language, with terms such as bairn ("child"), bonny ("beautiful"), gang or gan ("go/gone/going") and kirk ("church") found on both sides of the Anglo-Scottish border. distinct from the ‘TRAP’ set in southern England. These include me (so "give me" becomes "give us"), we (so "we Geordies" becomes "us Geordies") and our (so "our cars" becomes "us cars"). Listen to an example of contemporary Multicultural London English (MLE). Again, this is a feature of accents throughout southeast England. And while it is often claimed that RP is not tied to any specific region of the UK, it is more heavily associated with the southeast of England as a result of its historical origins. The Angles settled mostly in the Midlands and the East; the Jutes in Kent and along the South Coast; and the Saxons in the area south and west of the Thames. The accents of Northern England generally do not use a /ɑː/. Home to Leeds, York, and Sheffield, the Yorkshire accent is characterized by a different pronunciation of the letter “u”. 28: Sunderland Whatever you do, don't confuse the Sunderland accent (Mackem), with Geordie. He is very difficult to understand. Again, this is a feature of accents throughout southeast England. This is most apparent in the dialects along the west coast, such as Liverpool, Birkenhead, Barrow-in-Furness and Whitehaven. , The "epistemic mustn't", where mustn't is used to mark deductions such as "This mustn't be true", is largely restricted within the British Isles to Northern England, although it is more widely accepted in American English, and is likely inherited from Scottish English. If you’re interested in learning more information on accents in the UK, you can consult the British Library’s Accents and Dialects Archive. In modern dialects, the most obvious manifestation is a levelling of the past tense verb forms was and were. All English accents sound like English accents; honestly, few ‘Mericans can tell a Yorkshire accent from a Liverpool accent- they’re all English to most of … There is a neutral accent (often referred to as RP - received pronunciation), then within the south east you would get other accents such as “cockney" (East End London) or Essex (think Russell Brand). Listen to this short clip to hear an example of the UWYE accent. Finally, the vowels in the words, are different from the vowels in the words. Obsessed with travel? "Falls and Rises: Meanings and Universals". In some case, these allow the distinction between formality and familiarity to be maintained, while in others thou is a generic second-person singular, and you (or ye) is restricted to the plural. For example, instead of saying “I’m going running,” you would say “I’m goin' runnin’.” sound different in the south, but not in the north. 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